Is Shaban Among The Sacred Months?

 



Allah Azawajal explains in Qur'an 9:36

 "The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year)- so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred: that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein, and fight the Pagans all together as they fight you all together. But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves."

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Bakrah said that the Prophet said in a speech during his Hajj,

أَلَا إِنَّ الزَّمَانَ قَدِ اسْتَدَارَ كَهَيْيَتِهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ اللهُ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالاَْرْضَ السَّنَةُ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا مِنْهَا أَرْبَعُةٌ حُرُمٌ ثَلَثَةٌ مُتَوَالِيَاتٌ ذُو الْقَعْدَةِ وَذُو الْحِجَّةِ وَالْمُحَرَّمُ وَرَجَبُ مُضَرَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ جُمَادَى وَشَعْبَان

The division of time has turned to its original form which was current when Allah created the heavens and the earth. The year is of twelve months, out of which four months are sacred:Three are in succession Dhul-Qa`dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thaniyah) and Sha`ban."

The Sacred Months


Allah Azawajal says,
مِنْهَا أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ
of them four are sacred.

The Arabs used to consider these months sacred during the time of Jahiliyyah, except for a group of them called Al-Basl, who held eight months of the year to be sacred as way of exaggeration in religion.

The Prophet said,

ثَلَثَةٌ مُتَوَالِيَاتٌ ذُو الْقَعْدَةِ وَذُو الْحِجَّةِ وَالْمُحَرَّمُ وَرَجَبُ مُضَرَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ جُمَادَى وَشَعْبَان

Three are in succession; Dhul-Qa`dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab (of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thani)) and Shaban.

The Prophet said "Rajab of Mudar" to attest to the custom of Mudar, in saying that Rajab is the month that is between Jumada and Shaban, not as the tribe of Rabiah thought, that it is between Shaban and Shawwal, which is Ramadan in the present calendar.

The four Sacred Months were made four, three in succession and one alone, so that the Hajj and Umrah are performed with ease.
Dhul-Qadah, the month before the Hajj month, was made sacred because they refrained from fighting during that month.
Dhul-Hijjah, the next month, was made sacred because it is the month of Hajj, during which they performed Hajj rituals.
Muharram, which comes next, was made sacred so that they are able to go back to their areas in safety (after performing Hajj).
Rajab, in the middle of the lunar year, was made sacred so that those coming from the farthest areas of Arabia are able to perform Umrah and visit the House and then go back to their areas safely.

 Allah Azawajal says next,

ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ

That is the right religion,

that is the Straight Law, requiring implementing Allah's order concerning the months that He made sacred and their true count as it was originally written by Allah.

Allah Azawajal says,

فَلَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ

so wrong not yourselves therein,

during these Sacred Months, for sin in them is worse than sin in other months.

Likewise, sins in the Sacred City are written multiplied,

وَمَن يُرِدْ فِيهِ بِإِلْحَادٍ بِظُلْمٍ نُّذِقْهُ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
and whoever inclines to evil actions therein (in Makkah) or to do wrong, him We shall cause to taste from a painful torment. (22:25)

Similarly, sin in general is worse during the Sacred Months.

Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated that Ibn Abbas said, Allah's statement,
إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِندَ اللّهِ
(Verily, the number of months with Allah...), is connected to
فَلَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ
(so wrong not yourselves therein),

"In all (twelve) months. Allah then chose four out of these months and made them sacred, emphasizing their sanctity, making sinning in them greater, in addition to, multiplying rewards of righteous deeds during them."

Qatadah said about Allah's statement,
فَلَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ
(so wrong not yourselves therein),

"Injustice during the Sacred Months is worse and graver than injustice in other months. Verily, injustice is always wrong, but Allah makes things graver than others as He will."

He also said,

"Allah has chosen some of His creation above others. He chose Messengers from angels and from men. He also chose His Speech above all speech, the Masajid above other areas of the earth, Ramadan and the Sacred Months above all months, Friday above the other days and Laylatul-Qadr (The Night of Decree) above all nights.

Therefore, sanctify what Allah has sanctified, for doing so is the practice of people of understanding and comprehension."

Fighting in the Sacred Months


Allah said,

وَقَاتِلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَأفَّةً

and fight against the idolators collectively, (all of you),

كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَأفَّةً
as they fight against you collectively, (all of them),

وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ
But know that Allah is with those who have Taqwa,

and know that initiating battle during the Sacred Months is forbidden.

Allah Azawajal says in other Ayat,

يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تُحِلُّواْ شَعَأيِرَ اللَّهِ وَلَا الشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ

O you who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the symbols of Allah, nor of the sacred month. (5:2)

الشَّهْرُ الْحَرَامُ بِالشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْحُرُمَـتُ قِصَاصٌ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُواْ عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ

The Sacred Month is for the Sacred Month, and for the prohibited things, there is the law of equality (Qisas). Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him. (2:194)

and,

فَإِذَا انسَلَخَ الَاشْهُرُ الْحُرُمُ فَاقْتُلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Then when the Sacred Months have passed, kill the idolators... (9:5)

As for Allah's statement,

وَقَاتِلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَأفَّةً كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَأفَّةً

And fight against the idolators collectively as they fight against you collectively,

it includes permission for the believers to fight the idolators in the Sacred Month, if the idolators initiate hostilities therein.

Allah Azawajal says in other Ayat,

الشَّهْرُ الْحَرَامُ بِالشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْحُرُمَـتُ قِصَاصٌ

The Sacred Month is for the Sacred Month, and for the prohibited things, there is the law of equality (Qisas). (2:194)

and,

وَلَا تُقَـتِلُوهُمْ عِندَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ حَتَّى يُقَـتِلُوكُمْ فِيهِ فَإِن قَـتَلُوكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ

And fight not with them at Al-Masjid Al-Haram, unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. (2:191)

As for the Messenger of Allah laying siege to At-Ta'if until the Sacred Month started, it was a continuation of the battle against Hawazin and their allies from Thaqif. They started the fighting and gathered their men for the purpose of conducting war. The Messenger of Allah marched to meet them and when they took refuge in At-Ta'if, the Prophet laid siege to them so that they descend from their forts, but they inflicted casualties on Muslims. The siege continued for about forty days, during which a Sacred Month began, and the siege continued for several days in that month. The Messenger broke the siege and went back (to Makkah). So fighting that carries over into it (the Sacred Month) is not the same as initiating warfare during it, Allah knows best.


Ibnkhaer

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